1. A short summary of: "The "re-invention" of some of science's early contributions to current-day cochlear implants (1973-1990)" -- first-hand research experiences, by Mark White. (PDF file)

  2. An interesting and remarkably broad overview of the early scientific contributions made by our lab (UCSF) to cochlear implants: "Early UCSF contributions to the development of multiple-channel cochlear implants" by Michael M. Merzenich. (PDF file)

Flow-Chart, Time-Line, and Detailed Description of the Science, Design, Implementation, and Testing of the CIS Speech/Stimulus Processor:

  1. Detailed descriptions and annotated documents can be accessed by "clicking-on" the darker-blue blocks within this Flow Chart / Block Diagram.

  2. The darker-blue "blocks" in this "Flow Chart" contain links to most of the information contained on this web site.  The "Flow Chart" contains links to (1) historical descriptions, (2) annotated document excerpts, and the (3) the complete text of those documents.


  1. Many scientists and engineers authored the publications referenced here.  Mark White wrote all the annotations and descriptions contained within this web site.  His publications are available here. His email address is:

  2. Another interesting set of documents  are from the Research Triangle Institute's (RTI) Quarterly Progress Reports on Cochlear Implants (1983-1992).  These were downloaded from an NIH web site in 2004. These QPR reports were accessed using "The Internet Archive" which automatically stored all the Neural Prosthesis Program Reports at that point in time. Please support "The Internet Archive" (it's our new library!)